[8] [2] He, more than any other artist of the period, exemplified the Romantic values of the expression of the artist's feelings and his personal imaginative world. Created by. [18] [2] The lyrics of Robert Burns in Scotland and Thomas Moore, from Ireland reflected in different ways their countries and the Romantic interest in folk literature, but neither had a fully Romantic approach to life or their work. By the early twentieth century, the sense that there had been a decisive break with the musical past led to the establishment of the nineteenth century as "The Romantic Era," and as such it is referred to in the standard encyclopedias of music. [2], At about this same time English Romantic poetry had reached its zenith in the works of John Keats, Lord Byron, and Percy Bysshe Shelley. His Romantic period included many historical pieces of "Troubadour" tendencies, but on a very large scale, that are heavily influenced by Gian Battista Tiepolo and other late Baroque Italian masters. Influence of European Romanticism on American writers. Edgar Allan Poe's tales of the macabre and his balladic poetry were more influential in France than at home, but the romantic American novel developed fully with the atmosphere and melodrama of Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter (1850). The first phase of the Romantic movement in Germany was marked by innovations in both content and literary style and by a preoccupation with the mystical, the subconscious, and the supernatural. [2] [2], Later Transcendentalist writers such as Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson still show elements of its influence and imagination, as does the romantic realism of Walt Whitman. [20], The poet and painter William Blake is the most extreme example of the Romantic sensibility in Britain, epitomized by his claim, "I must create a system or be enslaved by another man's." The humanitarianism that had been developing during the eighteenth century was taken up enthusiastically by the romantic writers. The best known English Romantic poets include Blake, Coleridge, Wordsworth, Keats, Byron and Shelley. The early Romantic period thus coincides with what is often called the "age of revolutions"--including, of course, the American (1776) and the French (1789) revolutions--an age of upheavals in political, economic, and social traditions, the age which witnessed the initial transformations of the Industrial Revolution. Although the great novelist Jane Austen wrote during the romantic era, her work defies classification. -A. Richard Gravil’s Romantic Dialogues: Anglo-American Continuities, 1776-1862 (2000) describes the multivalent circulation of ideas around the Atlantic rim as driven by both broad historical trends and specific local events. In Revolutionary France, the vicomte de Chateaubriand and Mme de Sta"l were the chief initiators of Romanticism, by virtue of their influential historical and theoretical writings. [18], How the word romantic came to be applied to this period is something of a puzzle. His long, prolific and extremely successful career saw him begin as a Neoclassical painter, pass right through the Romantic period, and emerge at the other end as a sentimental painter of young women. [18] [4], In contrast Lord Byron and Walter Scott achieved enormous fame and influence throughout Europe with works exploiting the violence and drama of their exotic and historical settings; Goethe called Byron "undoubtedly the greatest genius of our century". [2] In Romantic theory, art was valuable not so much as a mirror of the external world, but as a source of illumination of the world within. Romantic nationalism had a largely negative effect on the writing of history in the 19th century, as each nation tended to produce its own version of history, and the critical attitude, even cynicism, of earlier historians was often replaced by a tendency to create romantic stories with clearly distinguished heroes and villains. [19] After all, both took place around the eighteenth century. The movement commenced in approximately 1828 in America. Revival of ancient myths, customs and traditions by Romantic poets and painters helped to distinguish their indigenous cultures from those of the dominant nations (Russians, Germans, Austrians, Turks, etc.). [2] In Italy, the most important Romantic sculptor was Lorenzo Bartolini. •Underground Railroad is formed 1830. [9] •Sees poetry as the highest expression of the imagination, http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/eng372/intro-h4.htm, “The Middle Ages 1066-1485.” Elements of Literature Essentials of, British and World Literature Sixth Course. [2] In England Wordsworth wrote in a preface to his poems of 1815 of the "romantic harp" and "classic lyre", but in 1820 Byron could still write, perhaps slightly disingenuously, "I perceive that in Germany, as well as in Italy, there is a great struggle about what they call 'Classical' and 'Romantic', terms which were not subjects of classification in England, at least when I left it four or five years ago". [2] Arguably, the most distinguished Romantic poet of this part of Europe was Adam Mickiewicz, who developed an idea that Poland was the "Messiah of nations," predestined to suffer just as Jesus had suffered to save all the people. In 1810, E.T.A. [2] [8] They took the Romantic approach of rooting religion in the inner world of the human spirit, so that it is a person's feeling or sensibility about spiritual matters that comprises religion. 1832: Victorian(1832 to 1901) Victorian literature dates to the period of Queen Victoria's reign. [8] [2] [4] The leading sculptors in Europe, Antonio Canova and Bertel Thorvaldsen, were both based in Rome and firm Neoclassicists, not at all tempted to allow influence from medieval sculpture, which would have been one possible approach to Romantic sculpture. [13] [19] [2] [18], They are romantic, however, in their emphasis on emotion, nature, the individual and the imagination. In the contemporary music culture, the romantic musician followed a public career depending on sensitive middle-class audiences rather than on a courtly patron, as had been the case with earlier musicians and composers.