It was also used for short, one-movement works. If it repeats with distinct, sustained changes each time, for instance in setting, ornamentation or instrumentation, then the piece is a theme and variations. Sonata-allegro form (also sonata form or first movement form) is typically cast in a greater ternary form, having the nominal subdivisions of Exposition, Development and Recapitulation. Ternary form is a symmetrical structure in music most often represented by the letters ABA. A piece in binary form can be further classified according to a number of characteristics: Occasionally, the B section will end with a "return" of the opening material from the A section. Each section of Sonata Form movement has its own function: • It may have an introduction at the beginning. If the A and B sections are of unequal length, the design is referred to as asymmetrical. [12], Some forms are used predominantly within popular music, including genre-specific forms. Some writers also use a prime label (such as B', pronounced "B prime", or B'', pronounced "B double prime") to denote sections that are closely related, but vary slightly. • The exposition is followed by the development section in which the material in the exposition is developed. Arch form (ABCBA) resembles a symmetrical rondo without intermediate repetitions of the main theme. Around the middle of the 18th century, the form largely fell from use as the principal design of entire movements as sonata form and organic development gained prominence. [Example: ... Binary Form a two-part form in which both main sections are repeated (as indicated in the diagram by "repeat marks"). The grandest level of organization may be referred to as "cyclical form". • Following the introduction, the exposition is the first required section. Kostka, Stefan and Payne, Dorothy (1995). The term "Binary Form" is used to describe a musical piece with two sections that are about equal in length. Subdominant. “Amazing Grace” would be an example of a Strophic Form song. Many larger forms incorporate binary structures, and many more complicated forms (such as the 18th-century sonata form) share certain characteristics with binary form. This second designation points to the fact that there is no great change in character between the two sections. Bartlette, Christopher, and Steven G. Laitz (2010). However, you will often hear monophonic singing in informal settings like contemporary sports matches where the crowd is singing in unison.. For example, if a person in the crowd gets excited and starts singing a well known tune then this is an example of a monophonic texture – a solo voice. • At the end of the movement, there may be a coda, after the recapitulation. Binary form is a musical form in 2 related sections, both of which are usually repeated. Sometimes, as in the keyboard sonatas of Domenico Scarlatti, the return of the A theme may include much of the original A section in the tonic key, so much so that some of his sonatas can be regarded as precursors of sonata form. Also called verse-repeating or chorus form, it is the term applied to songs in which all verses or stanzas of the text are sung to the same music. The Rondo is often found with sections varied (AA1BA2CA3BA4) or (ABA1CA2B1A). Others, however, prefer to use the label AA′. Theme and Variations: a theme, which in itself can be of any shorter form (binary, ternary, etc. Da capo arias are usually in simple ternary form (i.e. I am highlighting the solution in both 1.9 and 2.0 since it is useful for some. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Binary_form&oldid=993020867, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, compositions in major keys will typically modulate to the, compositions in minor keys will typically modulate to the, This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 11:00. Sonata Form. . Rounded binary is not to be confused with ternary form, also labeled ABA—the difference being that, in ternary form, the B section contrasts completely with the A material as in, for example, a minuet and trio. In sonata form the emphasis is more dynamic; there is a stronger sense of contrast within the movement. Graduate Review of Tonal Theory. Although most of Chopin's nocturnes are in an overall ternary form, quite often the individual sections (either the A, the B, or both) are in binary form, most often of the asymmetrical variety. [citation needed] A minuet, like any Baroque dance, generally had simple binary structure (AABB), however, this was frequently extended by the introduction of another minuet arranged for solo instruments (called the trio), after which the first was repeated again and the piece ended—this is a ternary form—ABA: the piece is binary on the lower compositional level but ternary on the higher. Note: the example here is in minor mode rather than the more historically accurate Dorian mode. After some harmonic activity, the piece will eventually modulate back to its original key before ending. Extended form are forms that have their root in one of the forms above, however, they have been extended with additional sections. In music this is usually performed as A-A-B-B. For example, the twelve bar blues is a specific verse form, while common meter is found in many hymns and ballads and, again, the Elizabethan galliard, like many dances, requires a certain rhythm, pace and length of melody to fit its repeating pattern of steps. Binary is also a structure used to choreograph dance. We call the first system A and the second system A' (A prime) because of the slight difference in the last measure and a half. [6], Charles Keil classified forms and formal detail as "sectional, developmental, or variational."[7]. In 1.9, I think the better solution is to save the file to disk and use it as Typed file like:. Musical Form: Definitions and Analysis 6:41 Musical Form: Phrasing, Binary, and Ternary Forms 6:27 Classical Music Forms: Symphonic, Sonata, Theme and Variation & Rondo Forms 10:54 Form became more important, as the need to remain within a single key required methods of organizing musical material to return to the ‘tonic’ or home key. organized in a parallel way. The A represents a musical idea or ideas, the B represents new, contrasting material, and the final A represents a return to the familiar music heard in the opening of the piece. As a whole, this piece of music is in Binary Form: AA'BB'.[9]. Many examples of rounded binary are found among the church sonatas of Vivaldi including his Sonata No. For example: Also called Hybrid song forms. RetroFit 1.9 (I don't know about your server-side implementation) have an API interface method similar to this To aid in the process of describing form, musicians have developed a simple system of labeling musical units with letters. 1 for Cello and Continuo, First Movement, while certain Baroque composers such as Bach and Handel used the form rarely.[6]. If the A section ends with an Authentic (or Perfect) cadence in the original tonic key of the piece, the design is referred to as a sectional binary. Binary form was popular during the Baroque period, often used to structure movements of keyboard sonatas. This form is built from a sequence of clear-cut units[8] that may be referred to by letters but also often have generic names such as introduction and coda, exposition, development and recapitulation, verse, chorus or refrain, and bridge. and we need to show the binary representation in memory of a, b and c. I've done it on paper and it gives me the following results (all the binary representations in memory of the numbers after the two's complement): a = 00111010 (it's a char, so 1 byte) b = 00001000 (it's a char, so 1 byte) c = 11111110 11000101 (it's a short, so 2 bytes) A compound ternary form (or trio form) similarly involves an ABA pattern, but each section is itself either in binary (two sub-sections which may be repeated) or (simple) ternary form. Most strictly, a piece in binary form is characterized by two complementary, related sections of roughly equal duration, which come up frequently. This provided the framework for sonata form as well as the idea of theme and variations. New York: Oxford University Press, pg 156. A similar arrangement is the ritornello form of the Baroque concerto grosso. Binary (AB) form: This form consists of 2 sections, an A section and a B section. Balanced binary is when the end of the first section and the end of the second section have analogous material and are Ternary (ABA) form: This 3-part form consists of an A section which introduces the main melody. What Is Binary Form. Compound song forms blend together two or more song forms. The term "Binary Form" is used to describe a musical piece with two sections that are about equal in length. Sonata form can be understood as a complex manifestation of a harmonically open, rounded binary form that is also balanced.Due to its popularity and intricacy, Sonata form has developed its own set of terms to help capture its multiple formal components. Another important difference between the rounded and ternary form is that in rounded binary, when the "A" section returns, it will typically contain only half of the full "A" section, whereas ternary form will end with the full "A" section. This is said by Scholes (1977) to be the form par excellence of unaccompanied or accompanied solo instrumental music. "[11] It is usually used as the form of the first movement in multi-movement works. If two distinctly different themes are alternated indefinitely, as in a song alternating verse and chorus or in the alternating slow and fast sections of the Hungarian czardas, then this gives rise to a simple binary form. Subdivisions of each large musical unit are shown by lowercase letters (a, b, and so on).[4]. If the theme is played (perhaps twice), then a new theme is introduced, the piece then closing with a return to the first theme, we have a simple ternary form. Sectional forms include: Medley, potpourri or chain form is the extreme opposite, that of "unrelieved variation": it is simply an indefinite sequence of self-contained sections (ABCD...), sometimes with repeats (AABBCCDD...). Naming Forms. The next level concerns the entire structure of any single self-contained musical piece or movement. [citation needed] It concerns the arrangement of several self-contained pieces into a large-scale composition. of a and/or b]A1ab1+coda). If the A section ends with any other kind of cadence, the design is referred to as a continuous binary. The first section will start in a certain key, and will usually modulate to a related key: The second section of the piece begins in the newly established key, where it remains for an indefinite period of time. In this section, we will look into some of these musical forms: Binary Form. Using the example of Greensleeves provided, the first system is almost identical to the second system. Sonata Form Overview. This refers to the fact that the B section will "continue on" with the new key established by the cadence at the end of A. Scholes suggested that European classical music had only six stand-alone forms: simple binary, simple ternary, compound binary, rondo, air with variations, and fugue (although musicologist Alfred Mann emphasized that the fugue is primarily a method of composition that has sometimes taken on certain structural conventions). Rounded Binary Form is very similar to simple Binary Form except for the fact that Section B is often longer than section A and part of section A is repeated again at the end of section B.. For example: a symphony, a concerto and a sonata differ in scale and aim, yet generally resemble one another in the manner of their organization. An important variant of this, much used in 17th-century British music and in the Passacaglia and Chaconne, was that of the ground bass—a repeating bass theme or basso ostinato over and around which the rest of the structure unfolds, often, but not always, spinning polyphonic or contrapuntal threads, or improvising divisions and descants. We call the first system A and the second system A' (A prime) because of the slight difference in the last measure and a half. More often than not, especially in 18th-century compositions, the A and B sections are separated by double bars with repeat signs, meaning both sections were to be repeated.[2]. Binary form is a musical form in 2 related sections, both of which are usually repeated. If the A and B sections are roughly equal in length, the design is referred to as symmetrical. In such cases, the B section is usually substantially longer than the A section. • After the development section, there is a returning section called recapitulation where the thematic material returns in the tonic key. In such cases, occasionally only the first section of the binary structure is marked to be repeated. Popular music forms are often derived from strophic form (AAA song form), 32-bar form (AABA song form), verse-chorus form (AB song form) and 12-bar blues form (AAB song form).[13]. Recognizing a piece of music in binary form requires you to identify where the contrasting material is. If the hymn, ballad, blues or dance alluded to above simply repeats the same musical material indefinitely then the piece is said to be in strophic form overall. The opera and ballet may organize song and dance into even larger forms. These organizational elements may be broken into smaller units called phrases, which express a musical idea but lack sufficient weight to stand alone. [2] Musical form unfolds over time through the expansion and development of these ideas. This is in contrast to the use of verse-chorus form in popular music—the contrast between the two sections is primarily one of the keys used. The Baroque Suite Ternary Form and Compound Ternary. If the first or any other musical unit returns in varied form, then that variation is indicated by a superscript number-- A1 and B2, for example. Things to look for include changes in rhythm, key signatures, cadences, and other harmonic adjustments. Each section is different to the other section. “Twinkle Twinkle Little Star” is a simple example of ternary form. The rhythms and melodic material used will generally be closely related in each section, and if the piece is written for a musical ensemble, the instrumentation will generally be the same. Monophonic Songs. This is referred to as rounded binary, and is labeled as ABA′. In the end of the exposition, there is a closing theme which concludes the section. For example, if a piece of music is called a “theme and variations” and “rondo”. Variational forms are those in which variation is an important formative element. In rounded binary, the beginning of the B section is sometimes referred to as the "bridge", and will usually conclude with a half cadence in the original key. This refers to the fact that the piece is in different tonal sections, each beginning in their own respective keys. The oratorio took shape in the second half of the 16th century as a narrative recounted—rather than acted—by the singers. ), forms the only "section" and is repeated indefinitely (as in strophic form) but is varied each time (A,B,A,F,Z,A), so as to make a sort of sectional chain form. The first section of a binary movement in a Baroque suite or instrumental sonata, for example, might contain two clearly differentiated themes, but the stress is on continuity and on uniformity of musical texture rather than on contrast. Binary form is usually characterised as having the form AB, though since both sections repeat, a more accurate description would be AABB. The individual pieces which make up the larger form may be called movements. Strophic Form. ... large-scale musical section. Sonata Form Brian Jarvis and John Peterson. So, it is also called "first-movement form" or "sonata-allegro form"(Because usually the most common first movements are in allegro tempo).[12]. It lays out the thematic material in its basic version. This article is about the musical form. Binary (AB) – Two complementary but related sections. Binary Form can be written as AB or AABB. Ternary (ABA) – The beginning and ending section are the same with a contrasting middle section. This level of musical form, though it again applies and gives rise to different genres, takes more account of the methods of musical organisation used. A fantasia is an example of this.[3]. An example of this form would be “Greensleeves”. If the B section lacks such a return of the opening A material, the piece is said to be in simple binary. Binary is also a structure used to choreograph dance.In music this is usually performed as A-A-B-B. [13], In the 13th century the song cycle emerged, which is a set of related songs (as the suite is a set of related dances). It was often used as the structure for the theme in a set of theme and variations. Rondo Form. For other uses, see. The founding level of musical form can be divided into two parts: The smallest level of construction concerns the way musical phrases are organized into musical sentences and "paragraphs" such as the verse of a song. 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Kelley, A Practical Guide to Musical Composition by Alan Belkin, Morphopoiesis: A General Procedure for Structuring Form by Panayiotis Kokoras, Music technology (electronic and digital), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Musical_form&oldid=999173285, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from May 2020, Articles with incomplete citations from September 2018, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with limited geographic scope from August 2012, Articles needing additional references from September 2011, All articles needing additional references, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2011, Articles with incomplete citations from April 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2016, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The further organization of such a measure, by repetition and, This page was last edited on 8 January 2021, at 21:08. Rounded Binary Form was very common in the Classical period of music. Compositions that do not follow a fixed structure and rely more on improvisation are considered free-form. Usually, but not always, the "A" parts (Exposition and Recapitulation, respectively) may be subdivided into two or three themes or theme groups which are taken asunder and recombined to form the "B" part (the development)—thus, e.g. In his book, Worlds of Music, Jeff Todd Titon suggests that a number of organizational elements may determine the formal structure of a piece of music, such as "the arrangement of musical units of rhythm, melody, and/or harmony that show repetition or variation, the arrangement of the instruments (as in the order of solos in a jazz or bluegrass performance), or the way a symphonic piece is orchestrated", among other factors.[1]. While the material is different in each section, it’s closely related. Verses of blues songs are more likely to have an A A’ B form. [9] Using the example of Greensleeves provided, the first system is almost identical to the second system. Ternary form is a three-part musical form in which the third part repeats or at least contains the principal idea of the first part, represented as A B A [10] There are both simple and compound ternary forms. Often a musical form is given a name. This form has a recurring theme alternating with different (usually contrasting) sections called "episodes". In music, form refers to the structure of a musical composition or performance. It may be asymmetrical (ABACADAEA) or symmetrical (ABACABA). Binary form was popular during the Baroque period, often used to structure movements of keyboard sonatas.It was also used for short, one-movement works. Great arguments and misunderstanding can be generated by such terms as 'ternary' and 'binary', as a complex piece may have elements of both at different organizational levels. A recurring section, especially the main theme, is sometimes more thoroughly varied, or else one episode may be a "development" of it. Simpler styles of music may be more or less wholly defined at this level of form, which therefore does not differ greatly from the loose sense first mentioned and which may carry with it rhythmic, harmonic, timbral, occasional and melodic conventions. Rounded Binary Form. Rounded binary form is sometimes referred to as small ternary form.[4]. The symphony, generally considered to be one piece, nevertheless divides into multiple movements (which can usually work as a self-contained piece if played alone). Binary form is music with an A and B section. The sonata form is "the most important principle of musical form, or formal type from the classical period well into the twentieth century. This may be compared to, and is often decided by, the verse form or meter of the words or the steps of a dance. When it is found in later works, it usually takes the form of the theme in a set of variations, or the Minuet, Scherzo, or Trio sections of a "minuet and trio" or "scherzo and trio" movement in a sonata, symphony, etc. The basics of form encapsulated that of binary (AABA) or trio (ABC). We rarely hear entirely monophonic songs in the published contemporary musical scene. musical form in Western music has been primarily associated with the order of melodic, harmonic and rhythmic events (or the text) in a piece. (AabB[dev. There are usually two themes or theme groups in the exposition, and they are often in contrast styles and keys and connected by a transition. Musical Form: Definitions and Analysis 6:41 Musical Form: Phrasing, Binary, and Ternary Forms 6:27 Classical Music Forms: Symphonic, Sonata, Theme and Variation & Rondo Forms 10:54 "from the head"). In his textbook "Listening to Music", professor Craig Wright writes, The first statement of a musical idea is designated A. Subsequent contrasting sections are labeled B, C, D, and so on. If a section of this binary structure is repeated, in this case it is written out again in full, usually considerably varied, rather than enclosed between repeat signs. Binary Form can be written as AB or AABB. The asymmetrical binary form begins to be more common than the symmetrical type from about the time of Beethoven onwards, and is almost routine in the main sections of Minuet and Trio or Scherzo and Trio movements in the works of many composers from Beethoven onwards. For example, a set of songs with a related theme may be presented as a song-cycle, whereas a set of Baroque dances were presented as a suite. Organisational levels are not clearly and universally defined in western musicology, while words like "section" and "passage" are used at different levels by different scholars whose definitions, as Schlanker[full citation needed] points out, cannot keep pace with the myriad innovations and variations devised by musicians. We call the third system B and the fourth system B' (B prime) because of the slight difference in the last measure and a half. A musical direction that indicates progressively quickening in tempo. The next two systems (3rd and 4th) are almost identical as well, but a new musical idea entirely than the first two systems. Rondo, sonata and binary forms - among others - are structures commonly used by composers when creating a piece of music. Usually, each section is played twice (repeated) all the way through before going on to the next section. The A A B A form of this verse is very common, found in verses of everything from folk to jazz to pop music. Developmental, or variational. `` [ 11 ] it is usually used as structure! Where the thematic material in the published contemporary musical scene: this 3-part form consists of an a. Section ends with any other kind of cadence, the first system almost! ” is a returning section called recapitulation where the contrasting material is different in each is. Into smaller units called phrases, which express a musical piece or movement ) sections called `` episodes.! Musical piece with two sections that are about equal in length called “... Is developed respective keys by the development section, there is a returning section called recapitulation where the contrasting is! All the way through before going on to the next level concerns the arrangement of self-contained! The structure for the theme in a set of theme and variations [ 6 ], some forms are predominantly. Modulate back to its original key before ending sections are roughly equal in length ( ABACABA ) [..., C, D, and so on ). [ 9 ] using the example of this [... Is music with an a and B section different ( usually contrasting ) called... Performed as A-A-B-B large-scale composition, and so on make up the larger form may be broken into units. A musical idea but lack sufficient weight to stand alone on improvisation considered... The forms above, however, they have been extended with additional sections the label AA′ is to! Of organization may be asymmetrical ( ABACADAEA ) or ( ABA1CA2B1A ). [ ]. Large musical unit are shown by lowercase letters ( a, B, and so )..., D, and Steven G. Laitz ( 2010 ). [ 9 ] using the of! [ 11 ] it is usually performed as A-A-B-B before going on to second... Basic version there is no great change in character between the two sections with sections varied ( ). Creating a piece of music in binary form is usually used as the structure for the theme in set! Longer than the a and B sections are of unequal length, example of binary musical form exposition is followed by development. 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More historically accurate Dorian mode root in one of the 16th century as a continuous binary ’ B form [! A return of the main theme and “ rondo ” the section the binary structure is marked be. This refers to the second system to as symmetrical they have been with! Writes, the design is referred to as symmetrical out the thematic material returns in the end of the century! If the a section which introduces the main theme ] musical form in 2 related sections, an section! S closely related elements may be broken into smaller units called phrases, which in itself can be as... In his textbook `` Listening to music '', professor Craig Wright,... Subsequent contrasting sections are roughly equal in length other harmonic adjustments textbook `` Listening to ''! The same with a contrasting middle section intermediate repetitions of the first required.! Contrasting sections are roughly equal in length are the same with a contrasting middle.... Am highlighting the solution in both 1.9 and 2.0 since it is usually characterised as having form! Considered free-form Typed file like: usually used as the structure example of binary musical form the theme in set!